You have made it through many levels of academia to get to this point. You have obtained an undergraduate degree, refined your skills with a Master’s degree, and now you are ready to take the final step in your educational career – obtaining your PhD. It is a big step and not one that many people ever take. By now you probably have a clear idea of where your interests lie and what you intend to pursue in your career. The final step in the process is to submit a PhD research proposal and complete your course of study.
Up to this point, you have probably written countless papers, but now it is time to make your mark and become the researcher. You will need to consider the following on how to write a PhD research proposal. First of all, have you defined a clear question? What will be the focus of your research, and how will you go about designing an approach to answering your question? (more…)
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Depending on the regulations accepted in your university, you will be required to write your dissertation in a certain citation format. Any kind of format highlight the appropriate layout for the paper as well as what sections you should include in your work; it is also a guideline for proper referencing and citing. To make the process of reviewing academic works easier, a university adopts only one particular formatting style.
APA format is the that was initially used by the American Psychological Organization and later adopted in studies other than Psychology. APA has a website where you can find guidelines to the formatting style and there is also much material that you can find about how to apply the style to your paper. It is important that you study closely this material, as proper formatting will help you gain more points to your dissertation.
The APA style is usually adopted by such disciplines (aside from) as Sociology, Linguistics, Criminology, Economics, Business and Nursing. (more…)
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Sample research proposal on Information security and Assurance IT Department Manager:
IT Department Manager role
The key role of IT in a company is to ensure that the communication, manipulation and handling of company’s data are made simple, effective and reliable. This is because IT provides the infrastructural platform for data handling and manipulation process. Some of the essential services provided by IT in a company includes; network management, provision of secure HTTP access in the web browser and ensuring network connection security. Some applications include MS Outlook, MS exchange, VLAN support as well as authenticated wireless connection.
It is thus the job of the IT manager to ensure that the process runs smoothly and that everything works correctly. The IT manager heads the technical team that is responsible for equipment configuration and management. Their tasks are usually divided according to their specialization. There are network technical support who will solely be responsible for the both the voice and data communication flow in the company. They therefore deal with routing and communication equipments such as routers, switches, cables and firewalls. Additionally this team is responsible for the network security and they thus work to ensure that both the hardware and the software of the company (usually firewall and firewall operating system) work according to the set standards and thus ensuring that unwanted data packets are blocked from entering the company’s servers (Whitman & Mattord, 2011). (more…)
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Chapter 3: Population, Participation Rates, and Hours of Work
It is necessary to evaluate or compute the amount of labor organizations. The cumulative supply of labor is influenced by the size of the population, the participating labor force, and the summation of each weekly and annual hour worked. The size of the population describes the total number of employable people in the industry; the participating labor force describes the total number of employed individuals and the summation of the weekly and annual hours worked refers to the sum amount of the amount of hours worked altogether by the participating labor force.
Becker’s model of time allocation is also used to illustrate the participation rates. The model perceives families as creating value- yielding products by merging time and goods. From this perspective, family members distribute their time to participating in the labor market, producing family utilities, and product consumption based on a comparative advantage. That is, the time allocation model rates the participation rate of the family based on the occurrence of these distributions in other families. The participation rate of the labor refers to the actual labor force in terms of the percentage of the employable population.
There has been an increase in the cumulative participation rate from 59% to 66% since after the Second World War. This increase is owing to the increased rate of participation of females, which resultantly offsets the diminishing rates of participation in their male counterparts. Older males constitute a major portion of the declining rates of participation in males. The diminishing rates of participation in older males are a result of: the increasing earnings; the accessibility of private and public annuities; increased access to disability allowances, and; age. These wage profiles indicate a continuous declination in the leisure costs for older employees. The increase in the rate of participation for females has been attributed to: increasing relative earning rates for females; increased labor market work preferences in females; increasing family productivity,; deteriorating birthrates; increased matrimonial instability; increased job accessibility; efforts to sustain family living standards. There is almost an identical rate of participation in African-American and white females. Initially African-American women participation rates exceeded the rates in white women. (more…)
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Green chemistry is also called sustainable chemistry. It is involves designing chemical processes and products in order to reduce or eliminate altogether the use of hazardous substances. It involves a chemical product’s life cycle, design, manufacture and use. Its technologies provide such benefits as safer products, reduction in use of resources and energy, reduction of waste, reduction of price and competitiveness, and safe environments. This study will explore the production of biomass briquettes (Sanghi, 195).
A briquette is a compressed block of coal dust, saw dust, woodchip or charcoal that is used for fueling and kindling a fire. They are small in size, varied in color and may vary in size depending on the press.
Background/literature review on green chemistry
With the rising fuel costs, technologists are increasingly looking at ways of reducing heating costs especially in developing countries in order to provide a safe reliable and affordable fuel which is environment friendly. Briquettes are blocks of compressed charcoal dust, coal dust, woodchips, sawdust or biomass, used as fuel in boilers and stoves. Briquettes which are made from materials which are not carbonized can be a bit smoky. In order to make them smokeless pyrolysed or carbonized materials can be used. Through carbonization, organic substances are converted into carbon without the presence of oxygen. Biomass briquettes can be made from biomass, a process which will not involve carbonizing the biomass. This can be done by partially decomposing the raw materials for a week or two. The material can then be dried and crushed into small pieces which are then mixed with mater to make a soupy slurry substance. The mixture is then put into a briquetting machine also known as a briquette press for pressing into the desired sizes. (more…)
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Dissertation Chapter on Routing in VANET:
In the recent past, a couple of routing protocols for VANET have been proposed. In this research, we focus on the most vital ones.
GSR (Geographic Source Routing)
This protocol has been put forward as the promising routing strategy suitable for vehicular ad hoc networks in urban environments. It is dependable on the availability of a map and the shortest path is computed on the overlaid graph using the vertices as the junction nodes and boundaries as the streets that join the vertices. The progression of junctions creates the route to the destination hence allowing packets to be sent greedily between junctions. When using GSR, the connectivity between two junctions is not taken into consideration; therefore there might not be a connected route through the two junctions. Research has shown that this type of routing protocol is much more effective than AODV and DSR in packet delivery ratio. In heavily populated networks, GSR works better and forwards the packets since most roads are connected. (more…)
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This chapter describes the research design of this study. Following the introduction, this chapter is divided into sections that give detailed information on the research questions, hypothesis, and the analytical methods used in this study. The effects adolescent victimization is many. Scott (2002) stated that these effects as short and long term. Early adolescence is a crucial period of development due to many biological, cognitive, and social changes that occur during this time. Peer relationships and interactions during the middle school years greatly influence differentiation and individuation of self-concepts. It is during early adolescence that an extremely fragile sense of self begins to unfold. Adolescents in this stage of development are able to recognize contradictions in their self-concepts and in how they conceptualize others, but they are not yet able to explain or reconcile these contradictions (Harter, 1998). Experiences during this time of social development will shape eventual identity formation in later adolescence and early adulthood. Bergin and Bergin (2011, p. 391) described that scholars have managed considerable thought in understanding how victimization alters youth and influences abuse, including drugs, alcohol, and other substance use with mental health difficulties amongst youth nowadays.
1.2. Research Aims & Objectives
Research Questions: The study was guided by the following research questions:
What is the relationship between exposure to community violence and indicators of adolescent academic performance?
What are the differences in the indicators of academic performance of adolescents’ who have high perceptions of community violence and low perceptions of community violence?
How does the method of violence exposure (witnessing versus victimization versus both witness and victim) impact indicators of academic performance?
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Are you an MBA student or do you know someone about to complete their MBA studies? It is probably the most important stage of the degree course, with more determinant forces hanging on the submission of the thesis than anything else. Among the most important part of this stage is the caution that students need to approach this issue with. It therefore follows that the basic foundational issue comes in the form of how to write a good MBA thesis.
Interestingly, despite the general feeling of relief once students graduate with their MBAs, it is one of the most difficult challenges for a student pursuing an MBA to come up with a good MBA thesis. What many institutions of higher learning will not do during their teaching is to capture every detail that every student would need to formulate their own theses without hitches. In such a case, students always find themselves looking for extra assistance from various sources on how to write good MBA theses.
In the basic MBA course coverage, every average student should however be in a position to critique the entire course and come up with an average thesis. In light of the modern competition in the employment scenes, it gets very difficult to secure a good work position with an average MBA. It is therefore important to invest extra effort to learn new and catchy skills on how to write a good MBA thesis. With the advent of the information age, learning has become significantly simpler since virtually all information on any topic is readily accessible. In light of the need to learn how to write good MBA theses, students will find the internet particularly important. (more…)
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This is an exctract from dissertation on decolonization:
During the last half millennium, the major European powers decided that it would be beneficial to their interests if they obtained colonies overseas to help with their economic expansion, among other things. They also wanted to develop capitalism and create a world market with an international division of labour. There were two main phases of colonial expansion (Chandra, 1992). The first of these was from 1450-1800, and the colonies were seen as places to trade with, but they didn’t produce raw materials and weren’t seen as markets. Colonialism meant conquest, plunder and small amounts of settlement. The second phase occurred after the industrial revolution when there was a great need for raw materials to be used in domestic factories. This period was from 1800-1945, and it was a phase of exploitation rather than a phase of expansion. The colonial leaders also saw the colonies as markets for the products that they produced at home, and they were often used against the interests of other competing colonial powers.
The implications of colonial rule on the colonies are considerable, and there was a large impact on local economics, culture and political systems. The manner in which decolonization took place also led to problems. Many geographers see a colonial past as probably the most important initial condition for underdevelopment. Although there is an obvious negative association between colonial rule and industrialisation, colonialism did give some benefits to the colonies. (more…)
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Example research proposal on Breast Cancer:
According to the National Alliance of Breast Cancer Organizations (NABCO, 2002), breast cancer is the second most common form of cancer in women in the United States, falling only behind skin cancers. This is why it is such an important disease to understand. Throughout this paper there will be information about various issues which deal with breast cancer, in an attempt to give better insight to the disease. First there will be a brief discussion on the normal and altered physiology of the breast followed by the etiology and possible causative factors. Next there will be signs and symptoms which result from these alterations. Finally, the paper will be ended with some complications and the prognosis of this disease.
Although breast cancer occurs in both men and women the prevalence is low in men. Out of every 100 women who are diagnosed with breast cancer only one man is which is why this paper will concentrate on the disease process in women. (ACS)
(American Cancer Society [ACS], 2002)
Please refer to the illustration above for help in understanding the structure of a normal breast. The female breast is primarily made up of lobules, ducts, and stroma. Lobules are milk producing glands, ducts are the milk passages that connect the lobules to the nipple and stroma is fatty and connective tissue that surrounds the ducts, lobules, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels carry lymph, a clear fluid containing waste products and immune cells. There are also lymph nodes along the lymphatic vessels; these nodes are bean-shaped collections of immune cells. Most lymphatic vessels of the breast connect to axillary lymph nodes which can be found in the armpit. Other nodes, such as internal mammary nodes and supra/infraclavicular nodes can also be found inside the chest or above and below the collarbone. (ACS, 2002) (more…)
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