This chapter describes the research design of this study. Following the introduction, this chapter is divided into sections that give detailed information on the research questions, hypothesis, and the analytical methods used in this study. The effects adolescent victimization is many. Scott (2002) stated that these effects as short and long term. Early adolescence is a crucial period of development due to many biological, cognitive, and social changes that occur during this time. Peer relationships and interactions during the middle school years greatly influence differentiation and individuation of self-concepts. It is during early adolescence that an extremely fragile sense of self begins to unfold. Adolescents in this stage of development are able to recognize contradictions in their self-concepts and in how they conceptualize others, but they are not yet able to explain or reconcile these contradictions (Harter, 1998). Experiences during this time of social development will shape eventual identity formation in later adolescence and early adulthood. Bergin and Bergin (2011, p. 391) described that scholars have managed considerable thought in understanding how victimization alters youth and influences abuse, including drugs, alcohol, and other substance use with mental health difficulties amongst youth nowadays.
1.2. Research Aims & Objectives
Research Questions: The study was guided by the following research questions:
What is the relationship between exposure to community violence and indicators of adolescent academic performance?
What are the differences in the indicators of academic performance of adolescents’ who have high perceptions of community violence and low perceptions of community violence?
How does the method of violence exposure (witnessing versus victimization versus both witness and victim) impact indicators of academic performance?